|Burak H. Sansal
The tale of Troy is told by Homer with the Iliad and the Odyssey. Homer was drawing on a vast cycle of stories about Trojan War. The Iliad includes a few weeks in the tenth year of the war.
According to Greek sources, Troy stood near the Dardanelles. There was no dispute about its location in the story that we are all familiar: the Dardanelles, the islands of Imbros, Samothrace and little Tenedos, Mount Ida to the south east, the plain and the river Scamander. It was an ancient city an its inhabitants were known as Teucrians or Dardanians but also as Trojans or Ilians which got this name from eponymous heroes, Tros and his uncle Ilus. In other source mentioned that Troy and Ilius were two separate places but Homer insists on using these two names for Troy.
On the mainland of Greece at that time, the most powerful king was Agamemnon. His residence was at Mycenae. At that time, the inhabitants of Greece called themselves as Arhaians, Danaans, or Argiues not Greeks or Hellenes. Agamemnon married Clytemnestra, daughter of Tyndareus of Sparta and sister to Helen. Helen was the most beautiful woman in the world, she had married with Agamemnon's brother Menelaos who became king in Lakonia. Two brothers had a great power in southern Greece.
On the other hand, in Troy Laemedon was the king of Ilios, the son of Ilus who had given his name to Troy. Laemedon tried to cheat the gods of their rewards. He would not give up the immortal snow - white horses sent by Herakles (Hercules). But Herakles sailed to the Troad (Troy), attacked, and captured the city. Laemedon and his sons were killed except the youngest, Podarces, who was released and took a new name, Priam, as a young king of Troy and the city was restored again.
Priam ruled over Troy successfully for three generations. He had fifty sons and twelve daughters. His eldest son was the great warrior Hector. And one of his sons, Paris, was the important figure in Troy's History.
The famous myth tells; Eris -strife- had thrown down a golden apple 'for the fairest' at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, and Zeus couldn't decide between his wife Hera, Athena (goddess of wisdom), and Aphrodite (goddess of love). The goddesses were led to the Trojan Mount Ida where Priam's most handsome son Paris lived. Hera offered him the lordship of all Asia; Athena the victory in war and wisdom beyond any other man; Aphrodite the most beautiful woman in the world. As usual, men being men, stories being stories, Paris gave the apple to Helen.
Paris went to Sparta to give the apple to Helen. Menelaus, husband of Helen, arranged a feast for him. When Menelaus left there to visit the king of Knossos, Helen and Paris ran away and sailed to Troy. But there is some contradiction in this part, some source says that Paris carried of Helen by force and plundered elsewhere in the Aegean sea before returning to Troy.
When Menelaus heard what happened, he begged his brother Agamemnon to take revenge. The king sent envoys to Troy to demand Helen's restitution but envoys came back with empty hands. Then Menelaus gathered an army. In the story, great heroes were Achilles, Odysseus (Ulysses) and Ajax. At Aulis, the army seers read the signs that Troy would fall in the tenth year of the war. Then Menelaus army sailed to Asia Minor and attacked Teuthrania in Mysia opposite of Lesbos, but they had mistaken according to Trojan territory and the army were beaten at the mouth of the Caicus river and driven back to their ship by Telephus, king of Mysia and ally of Troy.
The Greeks assembled again at Aulis but they were wind bound and unable to sail. Wings, hunger, evil harborage, crazing men, routing ships and cables stopped the Greek army, because Agamemnon had offended Artemis and his most beautiful daughter had to be sacrificed to change the fortune.
After the sacrification of Iphigenia, the army reached first Lesbos, then Tenedos which is an island visible from Troy. The islands were plundered. At the end, Greek army was at the bay of Troy. The Trojans also had allies from several places in Asia Minor and Thrace. The war took 10 years. In the tenth year of the war, the Greeks stopped raiding Asia Minor and attacked Troy. In a part of Homer's Iliad, Hector falls in a single combat with Achilles, the best Greek warrior, because he killed Patroclus, Achilles' best friend. The fight ended with the death of Hector. Achilles sacrificed twelve noble Trojan captives over Hector's funeral. After the death of Trojan ally Memnon in a battle at the Scaeon gate, Paris hit Achilles in his heel (the famous 'Achilles heel' comes from here), the only place where Achilles was vulnerable. And the greatest of all Greek heroes was burned and his ashes buried on a hill overlooking the Hellespont. Ajax committed suicide with the silver sword which had been given to him by Hector as a mark of respect. Somehow Priam's son Paris was killed by Philoktetes, but the Trojans still refused to give Helen up.
The Greeks had a plan; they built a wooden horse in order to gain access to the city. Well armed men, among them Odysseus of Ithaca and Menelaus, were hidden in it. The horse was left as a thank to Athena and the Greeks burned their camps and sailed as if they had given up. Trojans found the horse and pulled the horse into the city. At midnight, Greek soldiers jumped down from horse and opened the gates by killing the guards. The Greeks entered into the city and killed all Trojans. After the Greek massacre, none of the males were left alive in the city. Neoptolemus killed old Priam on the threshold of his royal house. The male children of Trojan heroes were slaughtered, Hectors little boy was thrown from the walls. Menelaus decided to kill Helen but in front of her beauty he gave up. After plundering and burning the city, the Greeks left Troy.
But this victory brought only more suffering to the Greeks. They were split up by storms and lost their way to return. Agamemnon, the king of Greeks was killed by his wife. Philoktetos was expelled from Thessaly by rebels.
Burak H. Sansal
Professional National Tour Guide, working with Turkey's most prestigious travel agencies. Traveling extensively worldwide. During his tenure in these companies, he was responsible for leading various groups, providing information about archaeological sites and Turkish culture. The itineraries were mostly different from each group, but generally concerned visiting a range of sites throughout the country; from East to West and from North to South. These tours were generally limited from 2 to 21 days. He also took daily sightseeing tours and worked as a simultaneous translator for businessman during their conventions. Some of the tours were on private driver/guide basis.
Languages: Native Turkish, fluent in Italian and English, intermediate German and French
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